EMR / EMF sources in Public Transportation

In public transportation, such as buses, trains, plains, ships,  the passengers' exposure to EMF can be higher than environments because of several special conditions.

The main reasons for EMF exposures in public transportation:
  1. EMF(ELF) from the electric devices that are part of the train, plane, ship, service taxi or bus
  2. EMF(RF) from the wireless and cellular equipment which is part of the train, plane, ship, service taxi or bus.
  3. EMF(RF) from the wireless and cellular devices used by the passengers.
  4. EMF(both RF and ELF) from the road/trail or from radiation source deployed around it.
In this page, we will explain the radiation sources that affect the passengers in public transportation. Now, in 2015, the use of WIFI, Wireless devices, and smartphones in public transportation have made it an impossible mission for an EHS person to use public transport without feeling pain or without suffering. The rights of EHS people and people who don't want to be exposed to EMF, to use the public transport has been neglected and put aside, all in the name of progress, so other people will be able to use their wireless devices. New infrastructures and systems are deployed into the public transport mean in order to allow this use of wireless and cellular devices inside public transports. 


For years, trains have been a very reliable and easy way to commute and travel. The trains are crowded particularly in the morning and evening as people use them to commute to and back from work. In addition to the ELF and RF sources which are part of the train systems (ELF:motor, power lines, electric and electronic systems, Air Condition and ventilation systems, computerized controlled systems..., RF: wireless communication systems, cellphone mast on the side of the railroad tracks), the passengers themselves carry smartphones, tablets, laptops and other wireless devices that emit RF radiation inside the train. In order to improve the wireless coverage inside the train, wireless routers and access points have been installed in many trains. All these RF sources are emitting RF radiation all the time, inside the train which is usually a metal closure which makes the reception worse and reflects the RF radiation back to the passengers. As a passenger in a crowded train, you will always be very close or even surrounded by RF emitting devices. Other than the EMF exposure issue there is also a noise issue since many people are talking on their cell phones in the cabin.

Partial solution

Find a spot in a cabin that is empty, even if it is in reserved seat cabin or first class. In some countries there are special cabins in which talking on the cellphone is prohibited (surfing is allowed). 

Future solution 

Setting one or two cabins in every train in which that using wireless devices will be prohibited in. 

RF radiation in trains


Similar to trains, also inside buses there is higher passengers exposure to non ionizing radiation (EMF) mainly from their own devices and equipment. In many of today's buses, mainly in developed countries, cellular modems and WIFI routers(both produce RF radiation) were installed, in order to create "free WIFI" inside the bus. This is done so people can use their smart phones freely on the bus, but with no consideration to the possible help effect. The Free WIFI on buses, cause people to be exposed to more RF radiation, for a longer time, when riding the bus. Some people also use their mobile phones for conversations while riding the bug, creating both a radiation and noise problem. In addition to that, in some buses wireless and cellular systems are installed, like for example fleet control systems, modern payment systems with cellular modem, navigation systems with wireless/cellular communication, in addition to the bus driver's personal cellular equipment, all adding to the overall RF radiation in the bus, and specially next to the driver.
In all buses, the floor is made out of RF reflecting metal. In some cases also the walls and ceiling (in some buses most of the walls and ceiling is from fiberglass), adding to both to the reflection and the bad cellular reception inside the bus. The bad reception from one hand and the reflection on the other hand also contribute to the exposure of the passengers and the driver to RF radiation.
In addition to that, ELF magnetic field exposure is expected near the bus electro-mechanical systems.

Existing possible solution

Removing all the wireless/cellular equipment next to the driver and creating a "quite zone" next to the driver where the use of wireless and cellular equipment is prohibited. 

Future solution

The use of cellular and wireless equipment on the bus should be prohibited.
Bus systems that use cellular communication should be installed with an external antenna so the radiation will not be transmitted inside the bus, but outside of it. 

WIFI in bus


The radiation exposure addition in Service Taxis, comes from the same sources as in buses. The driver equipment, devices in the car with cellular modems, the passengers equipment, wireless/cellular payment devices and more. Most of the Taxi is made our of metal, so there is also reception and reflection issues as well. In some service taxis around the world, Free WIFI is installed, adding it's bit to the radiation exposure.

Existing possible solution


Future solution 

Prohibit the use of wireless and cellular equipment in the car.
Installing the cellular device in the taxi which is equipped with an external antenna.

Air Plans

Air plans are a small, closed environment reach with radiation sources of many sources. The plan is equipped with radar and wireless communication systems. In addition to that many plans offer today Free WIFI to the passengers. The Free WIFI is enabled using WIFI routers and access points across the plan that emit RF radiation. In addition to that, now that there is WIFI on board, passengers continue to use their smartphones and wireless tablets and laptops during the all flight. Previously the use of cellular and WIFI devices was restricted only to few minutes before take off and several minutes after the landing, but now with free WIFI on board, there is RF radiation from these sources all along the flight. All of this in side a close metal environment(lots of reflections).
In addition to the non ionizing radiation from in side the plan, there is the ionizing radiation (cosmic radiation) coming from space when the plan is in high altitude.
In the air port it self there are also many types or radar and wireless communication systems. In addition, lots of new security systems and scanning equipment that are based on Radio Frequency Radiation or X-Ray are now in use in the airport, adding to the overall high exposure of passengers and workers in the field.

Existing possible solution

Chose a flight that does not offer WIFI.
Try to get on the plan as later as possible (without causing a delay). Try to get off the plan as soon as possible.

Future solution 

Allocating an area in the plan where the use of WIFI, cellular and wireless devices will be prohibited.
Later on, Prohibiting the use of WIFI, cellular and wireless devices all around the plan.
Installation of wired web terminal and multimedia systems at the back of the sit in front of you.

Passengers' ships

Passengers' ships are less crowded then airplane, buses, and trains, so it is easier to keep safety distance from people who use their wireless devices(if you want to). But on the other hand, ships are equipped with radar and communication systems that emit RF radiation. Most passengers ships will offer also Free WIFI, and will have routers and access points catered all over the ship. In addition, some of the cabins will be made out of metal, so there will be more reflection and less reception in them.

Existing possible solution

Keep safety distance from power and engine rooms, from radars and communication devices (especially on the upper decks).
Keep a safety distance from passengers that use wireless devices.

Future solution 

Allocating an area in the ship where the use of WIFI, cellular and wireless devices will be prohibited.
Later on, Prohibiting the use of WIFI, cellular and wireless devices all around all the ship.
Developing radar and communication devices that will emit less RF radiation.
Installation of a wired network connections in every cabin.